Hypoparathyroidism is caused by underactive parathyroid glands. Parathyroid glands are four small glands located next to the thyroid. They are responsible for regulating blood calcium levels as well as magnesium and phosphorus levels. If the parathyroid glands do not produce or secrete enough parathyroid hormone (PTH), it will result in low levels of calcium in the bloodstream. The low levels of calcium lead to muscle spasms, or tetany, an increased excitability of the nerves, and disturbances in heart rhythm.
The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is injury to or accidental removal of all four glands during a removal of the thyroid. Some people are born without parathyroid glands or the glands function suddenly decline due to unknown reasons.
The following are the most common symptoms of hypoparathyroidism. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Uncontrollable, painful spasms of the face, hands, arms, and feet
A burning or prickling sensation ("pins and needles") in the hands and feet, and around the mouth
The symptoms of hypoparathyroidism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and medical exam, diagnostic procedures for hypoparathyroidism may include blood tests to measure calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Other tests may also be done.
Treatment may include an injection of calcium to provide immediate relief and/or taking calcium and vitamin D tablets throughout the day for the rest of the your life.